Cooking Light and Protein
The German Nutrition Society recommends a protein intake of 0.8 (0, 02 oz.) grams per kilogram of body weight (kg KG) - in children, adolescents and pregnant women between 10 % - 30 % more. Even athletes in the muscle building are not more than 1.5g (0, 05 oz.) per kg body weight as per the recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) of the EU. A protein intake of up to 2g (0, 07 oz.) / kg body weight is thought to be harmless. All this is ensured by an average, even moderate dietary - nutrition, and notwithstanding the food supplement industry wants us to believe it otherwise.
A sample calculation: For a man weighing 80kg (2821 oz.) is 0.8g (0, 02 oz.) / kg body weight, protein intake is 64g (2, 2 oz.) per day up to 160g (5, 6 oz.) a day..
In general, the daily requirement of protein can be covered with a meal, but in regards to normal diet, it is difficult for athletes to take less amount of proteins.
However, it's not easy to reach protein oversupply, except by permanent gluttony or intentional imbalanced diet. The risks: Extremely high protein consumption affects the kidneys, the nitrogen balance and calcium balance in the body gets affected adversely resulting in affecting bone health. In context to increased fat consumption, a high protein intake favors the emergence of insulin resistance, which can lead to Typ-2-Diabetes.
Cooking light associated with proteins thus is quite simple: Eat a normal, a little too much or too little will not hurt, but avoid one-sided or extreme diet.
About the effect of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the No.1 source of energy in our diet. Bread, cereal, pasta, pulses, rice and sugar are naturally rich in it and form the basis of our energy supply. Honestly, the brain requires quick available energy - but also muscles, especially if they are under prolonged stress, such as people working physically or engaged in sporting activities.
From the above mentioned reasons - often little movement with an excess supply in food - too many carbohydrates are often however a reason that we take up much more energy, than we can process - and thus put on weight. 100g (3, 5 oz.) of bread (corresponds to whole-grain bread), has an energy content of about 280 calories, 100g (3, 5 oz.) (dry) pasta (about a cup) even has 380 calories- 1/5th of the energy expenditure out of the daily requirement of 2000 calories is covered with a plate of noodles. Please note: Noodles without sauce. Even 100g (3, 5 oz.) fat pork does not close in worth about 310 calories.
It is not just pure energy content of carbohydrates / sugar for people with low energy expenditure that can create a problem:
Excessive sugar consumption does increase insulin production in full swing. The insulin is to lower the high concentration of sugar again. This is done with the same efficiency with which we are familiar, through our diet, as shared with you above.
With the help of this "quick control" the balance of blood sugar regulation has come on track: The blood sugar rushes in the cells, the body senses low blood sugar level, and responds with: Ravenous Appetite
People who are interested in cooking light, because they want to assume, would do well even for some other reason, to reduce carbohydrates. Thanks to the retained carbohydrates, insulin inhibits lipolysis, thus reducing the body's fat reserves.
Cooking light and the proper handling of fat
We should not underestimate the vital benefits of fats and oils, even if the fat in food is associated with severe malnutrition.
Fats are essential for survival.
It's not only that completely fat- free food is bland and is a form of cooking light, which is no fun, but also is not sustainable in the long run – if you give up completely on fats, your body would contain essential elements of building and maintaining of bodily functions.
There are manifold functions of fats and oils: The first is the best-known activity, the allocation of energy. This is still far from the conclusion. The body needs fats for the formation of cellular components, especially the cell membrane; the formation of endogenous molecules such as eicosanoids, which are involved in the treatment of bleeding, inflammation or pain; to form a (heat) insulation layer on the skin and for padding the internal organs; to promote the intake and transport of vitamins (A, D, E and K); and best known as a flavor carrier for fat- soluble flavorings.
One speaks willingly about the "bad " and " good" fats, and distinguishes between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. This difference is also interesting for the topic of cooking light.
A short disambiguation: The concept of saturation of a fatty acid refers to how the molecule of fat is built. A fat molecule consists, among others, mainly of carbon. These atoms are capable of binding at several points with other atoms. The fat molecule is saturated from all free docking sites of the carbon atoms ligated with hydrogen atoms of the fat.
The situation is different with unsaturated fats: If two carbon atoms of a fatty chain not connected easily, but hang like one at their docking sites, are called unsaturated fatty acids (unsaturated because it is not a hydrogen atom). When there are more carbon atoms in the molecule, it is called polyunsaturated fatty acids.
And what causes it? When the carbon atoms are linked by several double bonds, the molecule receives one (or more) folds in the structure. A saturated molecule is however, straight. The fold creates distance from the adjacent molecules - the density of fat decreases, the fat becomes more liquid.
That's about the theory, but why now also this somewhat simplified classification in "good" or "bad" fats?
Saturated fatty acids are found primarily in animal products like fatty meat, sausages, butter, whole milk or cheese. They have no effect except the power supply. Positively formulated, they don't have any other use than to be a source of energy. In the light cuisine they can be omitted easily, provided they do not serve as a flavor carrier. Besides saturated fats can be simply produced by the body and then used for energy storage as unsaturated fats.
Especially valuable, however, are polyunsaturated fatty acids, because of the above mentioned multiple uses in the body. Polyunsaturated fats cannot be made in the body itself, it must come from food. They can be found in some nuts, vegetable oils and fish.
CholesterolThe cholesterol content in food is often a subject related to cooking light. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that is produced both by the body and by the food (but not 1:1). We need cholesterol out of which the body produces cortisol - an important neurotransmitter - or bile acids that help digest fat.
It is a popular myth that the amount of fed cholesterol had a major impact on cholesterol levels in the body. About 90 % of cholesterol is produced in the body itself (1-2 g / day), only 0.1 to 0.3 g is absorbed from the diet. Various processes in the body provide the necessary regulation of cholesterol levels. In recent times these terms LDL and HDL, transport substances in the body for water-insoluble substances such as just the cholesterol have become known. (LDL stands for "Low density lipoprotein", or "low-density lipoprotein," HDL "High -density lipoprotein", "high-density lipoprotein").
LDL transports cholesterol from the liver to the tissues, HDL provides the opposite way: from tissues to the liver.
But even here there is no direct possibility, to influence our cholesterol levels by diet and cooking light, such as revealed by the "VERA" study, conducted from 1985-1988 with 25,000 participants:
Namely, even in the consumption of various amounts of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, the HDL or LDL levels, if at all, only minimally change. We can however influence our HDL/LDL ratio, but not about the amount of HDL or LDL in the food!
Influence on our cholesterol levels through prostaglandins
We cannot achieve the effect of cholesterol levels, with over feeding or non- supply of cholesterol, but the fact that we have influence on the synthesis of prostaglandins. These are hormones that control the synthesis of cholesterol, among other things.
Cooking light has a positive effect on the prostaglandins, and thus, indirectly, on our cholesterol if we: consume more omega - 3 fats (canola oil, flaxseed oil, walnut oil, fish oil), less omega - 6 fats (e.g. from sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil or safflower oil).
Back to part 1: Basics of cooking light
In the third part: Light cooking at the right time, thanks to fibers and reasonable portion sizes.